What Trusts are Available for Estate Planning?

A trust is a legal agreement that has at least three parties. The same person(a) can be in more than one of these roles at the same time. The terms of the trust usually are embodied in a legal document called a trust agreement. Forbes’s recent article entitled “Here’s What You Need To Know About The Most-Popular Estate Planning Trusts” explains that the first party is the person who creates the trust, known as a trustor, grantor, settlor, or creator.

The trustee is the second party to the agreement. This person has legal title to the property in the trust and manages the property, according to the instructions in the trust and state law. The third party is the beneficiary who benefits from the trust. There can be multiple beneficiaries at the same time, and there also can be different beneficiaries over time.

The trustee is a fiduciary who must manage the trust property only for the interests of the beneficiaries and consistent with the trust agreement and the law. Although a trust is created when the trust agreement is signed and executed, it isn’t really operational until it’s funded by transferring property to it.

A living trust, also called an inter vivos trust, is a trust that’s created during the trustor’s lifetime. A testamentary trust is created in the trustor’s last will and testament. A trust can be revocable, which means that the trustor can revoke it or modify the terms at any time. An irrevocable trust can’t be changed or revoked.

Assets that are owned by a trust avoid the cost, delay and publicity of probate. However, there are no tax benefits to a revocable living trust. The settlors-trustees are taxed as though they still own the assets. The trust assets are also included in their estates under the federal estate tax.

An irrevocable trust typically is created to reduce income and/or estate taxes. This type of trust can also protect assets from creditors. When assets are transferred to an irrevocable trust, the income and gains are taxed to the trust when they are retained by the trust and taxed to the beneficiaries when distributed to them.

Under the federal estate tax and most state estate taxes, assets that are retitled to an irrevocable trust aren’t part of the grantor’s estate. Transfers to the trust are gifts to the beneficiaries. The grantor’s gift tax annual exclusion and lifetime exemption can be used to avoid gift taxes, until gifts exceed the exclusion and exemption limit.

A grantor trust is an income tax term that describes a trust where the grantor is taxed on the income. That’s because he or she retained rights to or benefits of the property. The revocable living trust is an example of a grantor trust.

A trust can be discretionary or nondiscretionary. A trustee of a discretionary trust has the power to make or withhold distributions to beneficiaries as the trustee deems appropriate or in their best interests. In a nondiscretionary trust, the trustee makes distributions according to the directions in the trust agreement.

Another type of trust is a spendthrift trust. This is an irrevocable trust that can be either living or testamentary. The key term restricts limits the beneficiary’s access to the trust principal, and the beneficiary and the beneficiary’s creditors can’t force distributions. The spendthrift provision is used when the settlor is worried that a beneficiary might waste the money or have trouble with creditors. Many states permit spendthrift trusts, but some limit the amount of principal that can be protected, and some do not recognize spendthrift provisions.

Finally, a special needs trust can be used to provide for a person who needs assistance for life. In many cases, it’s a child or sibling of the trust settlor. It can be either living or testamentary. Critical to a special needs trust is it has provisions that make certain the beneficiary can receive financial support from the trust, without being disqualified from federal and state support programs for those with special needs.

For more about trusts and how one may fit into your estate planning, contact an experienced estate planning attorney.

Reference: Forbes (Oct. 26, 2020) “Here’s What You Need To Know About The Most-Popular Estate Planning Trusts”

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How Do I Find a Great Elder Law Attorney?

Elder law attorneys specialize in legal affairs that uniquely concern seniors and their adult children, says Explosion’s recent article entitled “The Complete Guide on How to Find an Elder Law Attorney.”

Finding the right elder law attorney can be a big task. However, with the right tips, you can find an experienced elder law attorney who is knowledgeable, has the right connections and fits your budget.

While, technically, a general practice attorney will be able to handle your retirement, Medicaid and even your estate planning, an elder law lawyer is deeply entrenched in elder law. This means he or she will have extensive knowledge and experience to handle any case within the scope of elder law, like the following:

  • Retirement planning
  • Long-term care planning and insurance
  • Medicaid
  • Estate planning
  • Tax issues
  • Social Security
  • Veterans’ benefits; and
  • Other related areas of law.

While a general practice lawyer may be able to help you with one or two of these areas, a competent elder law lawyer knows that there’s no single formula in elder law that applies across the board. That’s why you’ll need a lawyer with a high level of specialization and understanding to handle your specific circumstances. An elder law attorney is best suited for your specific needs.

A referral from someone you trust is a great place to start. When conducting your elder law lawyer search, stay away from attorneys who charge for their services by the hour. For example, if you need an elder law attorney to work on a Medicaid issue, they should be able to give you an estimate of the charges after reviewing your case. That one-time flat fee will cover everything, including any legal costs, phone calls, meetings and court fees.

When it comes to elder law attorneys, nothing says more than experience. An experienced elder law lawyer has handled many cases similar to yours and understands how to proceed. Reviewing the lawyer’s credentials at the state bar website is a great place to start to make sure the lawyer in question is licensed. The website also has information on any previous ethical violations.

In your search for an elder law attorney, look for a good fit and a high level of comfort. Elder law is a complex area of law that requires knowledge and experience.

Reference: Explosion (Aug. 19, 2020) “The Complete Guide on How to Find an Elder Law Attorney”

 

Coronavirus Makes Estate and Tax Planning an Urgent Task

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought estate planning front and center to many people who would otherwise dismiss it as something they would get to at some point in the future, says the article “Estate and Life Insurance Considerations During the Covid-19 Pandemic” from Bloomberg Tax. Many don’t have a frame of reference to address the medical, legal, financial, and insurance questions that now need to be addressed promptly. They’ve never experienced anything like today’s world. The time to get your affairs in order is now.

What will happen if we get sick? Will we recover? Who will take care of us and make legal decisions for us? What if a family member is in an assisted living facility and is incapacitated? All of these “what if” questions are now pressing concerns. Now is the time to review all legal, insurance and financial plans, and take into consideration two new laws: the SECURE Act and the CARES Act.

An experienced estate planning attorney who focuses in estate planning will save you an immense amount of money. Bargain hunters be careful: a small mistake or oversight in an estate plan can lead to expensive consequences. A competent legal professional is the best investment.

Here’s an example of what can go wrong: A person names two minor children—under age 18—as beneficiaries on their IRA account, life insurance policy or bank account. The person dies. Minors are not permitted to hold title to assets. Minors in New York are considered wards of the court in need of protection and court supervision. Therefore, in this state, the result of the beneficiary designation means that a special Surrogate’s Court proceeding will need to occur to have a pecuniary guardian appointed for the minors, even if the applicant is their custodial guardian.

Another “what if?” is the support for a disabled or special needs beneficiary who may be receiving government support. If the parents are gone, who will care for their disabled child? What if there are not enough assets in the estate to provide supplemental financial support, in addition to the government benefits? Life insurance can be used to fund a special needs trust to ensure that their child will not be dependent upon family or friends to care for their needs. However, if there is no special needs trust in place, an inheritance may put the child’s government support in jeopardy.

Here are the core estate planning documents to be prepared:

  • Last Will and Testament
  • Revocable Living Trust
  • Durable General Power of Attorney
  • Health Care Declaration

The SECURE Act changed the rules regarding inherited IRAs. With the exception of a surviving spouse and a few other exempt individuals, the required minimum distributions must be taken within a ten- year time period. This causes an additional income tax liability for future generations. There are strategies to reduce the impact, but they require advance planning with the help of an estate planning attorney.

Reference: Bloomberg Tax (June 18, 2020) “Estate and Life Insurance Considerations During the Covid-19 Pandemic”

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